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埃及为了解决首都开罗的拥堵、污染等问题,提出了建设新首都的计划。已有两家中国企业承诺为该项目投资,使得新首都向成为现实又迈进了一步。但一些人并不看好这一项目,认为新首都可能会成为“鬼城”,而这一方案并不能解决城市发展规划中存在的根本问题。

Egypt's new capital city moved a step closer to reality with the announcement that Chinese developers will largely fund the megaproject.

中国开发商宣布了对埃及新首都大型工程的巨额投资后,这座新首都向成为现实又迈进了一步。

The China Fortune Land Development Company (CFLD) agreed to provide $20 billion for the currently unnamed city, after a meeting between heads of the firm and Egyptian President Abdel Fattah El Sisi.

在埃及总统塞西与华夏幸福公司领导会谈后,该公司同意为这座目前尚未命名的城市提供200亿美元的资金。

This follows a previous commitment of $15 billion from another Chinese state-owned company, bringing the project close to its $45 billion budget requirements for phase I.

此前,另一家中国国有企业承诺投资150亿美元。此举使该项目离一期工程450亿美元的预算要求更进一步。

Plans for the new capital were first announced in March 2015. Government officials described the development as a solution to crowding, pollution and rising house prices in Cairo.

新都计划于2015年3月公布,政府官员称开发新城是开罗拥堵、污染和房价上涨等问题的解决方案。

"Cairo Capital is a momentous endeavor to build national spirit, foster consensus, provide for long-term sustainable growth," said the project website. "(The) new city will create more places to live, work and visit."

该项目网站称:“此举是为建立民族精神、促进共识、提供长期可持续发展做出的重大尝试。新城将为人们的生活、工作和出游创造更多的区域。”

Under construction

在建中的新城

The 700 square kilometer city to be constructed in the desert to the East of Cairo would become the new seat of government, and it is presented as a far grander vision than the current capital.

这座将被建在开罗东部沙漠的城市面积为700平方公里,它将成为政府新址,且提出了比当前首都更宏大的设想。

Proposals for the city include housing for five million people, over 1,000 mosques, smart villages, industrial zones, a 5,000-seat conference center, and the world's largest park.

关于这座城市的构想包括可满足五百万人需求的住房、1000多座清真寺、智能村、工业区、一座容纳5000人的会议中心和世界上最大的公园。

Interest in the project has been brisk. An Indian company is reportedly planning a vast medical center and university, while a Saudi firm intends to build a 12.6 hectare mosque and Islamic museum.

该项目一直受到许多关注。据报道,一家印度公司正在计划投资一座庞大的医疗中心和大学,而一家沙特公司打算在此建造一座占地12.6公顷的清真寺和伊斯兰博物馆。

Construction is already under way. According to Egypt's Al-Ahram newspaper, engineers have begun work on infrastructure including bridges and 210 kilometers of roads.

城市建设已经在进行中。据埃及《金字塔报》报道,工程师们已经开始建造桥梁和长210公里的公路等基础设施。

The first phase of the project will see government ministries and residential blocks rise from the sand. This phase could be complete within five years, with the first residents moving in.

在项目的第一阶段中,政府部门和住宅街区将从沙漠中被建起。五年内可完成这一阶段,并有第一批居民迁入。

Ghost town?

“鬼城”?

Despite the optimism from officials, there are concerns that the project will encounter familiar problems. Egypt has already constructed several satellite towns around Cairo, which have registered low occupancy despite high investment.

尽管官方态度乐观,但也有人担心该项目会遇到一些常见的问题。埃及已经在开罗周边建设了几个卫星城,尽管投入颇高,但是显示的居住率却很低。

"The needs of Cairo should be met by the existing eight new towns around it," says David Sims, an urban planner and author based in the Cairo. "But people call them ghost towns."

居住在开罗的城市规划师兼作家大卫•西姆斯说:“开罗周边现有的八个新城镇本就能满足其需求。但人们却称它们为‘鬼城’。”

The satellites repeated the same mistakes, says Sims, which are also likely to affect the new capital.

西姆斯说:“这些卫星城重复了同样的错误,它们也可能会影响新的城市。”

"The new towns produced housing that is unaffordable, unobtainable and inaccessible for the majority of Cairo's inhabitants," says Sims. "The new towns were built with a high modernist approach that did not allow the informal enterprises and activities that most Egyptians rely on."

“新城镇建造的住房是大多数开罗居民买不起、买不到也无法理解的。新城镇根据高度现代化的方式建造,禁止了大多数埃及人依靠的非正规企业和活动。”

Learning lessons

经验教训

Egypt has a fundamentally misguided approach to development planning, according to architect and planner Kareem Ibrahim of the NGO Tadamun.

据非政府组织Tadamun的建筑师和规划师卡里姆•易卜拉辛称,埃及的发展规划方式存在根本误区。

"We have a chronic problem with the urban government of existing cities, and no matter how many cities you build you are not solving this problem," he says.

他说:“我们现有城市的市政府长期存在一个问题,无论建了多少城市,都没有解决这个问题。”

Ibrahim's research found that around 50% of Cairo neighborhoods lacked access to sewage services, while public services were failing, and municipal councils were operating with as little as $4 per capita per year.

易卜拉辛的研究发现,开罗周边近50%的地区缺乏污水处理系统,公共服务缺失,市政局的人均经费每年只有4美元。

"The levels of deprivation were shocking," says Ibrahim. "The investment should be going towards providing equal rights to public services and utilities. Let's think about how to develop better governing structure for the cities we have, and then build new cities."

“公共服务匮乏的程度令人震惊。政府应为保障人们获得公共服务和公共设施的公平权利而投资。让我们先思考如何为现有城市开发更好的治理结构,然后再建设新城市。”

 

图文来源:中国日报英语点津

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