当前位置: 发现  >  双语资讯  > 正文

特朗普的语言技巧可能受人质疑,但这位美国总统的常用语已对英语造成了影响,这在最新增补的牛津在线词典中可见一斑。牛津在线词典内容开发负责人安格斯•史蒂文森说,新增词汇"clicktivism"(网络点击行动主义)、"haterade"(极端仇恨)、"otherize"(异己)和"herd mentality"(羊群心态)都与特朗普有关。

Donald Trump's linguistic dexterity may be questionable, but the US president's lexicon has had an impact on the English language, which is reflected in the latest additions to oxforddictionaries.com, the online reference guide to current English.

特朗普的语言技巧可能受人质疑,但这位美国总统的常用语已对英语造成了影响,这在最新增补的牛津在线词典中可见一斑。牛津在线词典是流行英语的参考指南。

New coinages that reflect the latest wave of online political activism form a significant section of more than 300 new definitions in the database, which is a sister work to the Oxford English Dictionary.

反映最新一波网络政治活动的新词已在这个数据库中组成了300多个新词条。牛津在线词典是《牛津英语大词典》的姐妹版。

Additions including "clicktivism" (a pejorative word for armchair activists on social media), "haterade" (excessive negativity, criticism, or resentment), "otherize" (view or treat – a person or group of people – as intrinsically different from and alien to oneself) and "herd mentality" (the tendency for people's behaviour or beliefs to conform to those of the group to which they belong) all emerged during the 2016 battle for the White House, said head of content development Angus Stevenson.

牛津在线词典内容开发负责人安格斯•史蒂文森说,新增词汇包括"clicktivism"(网络点击行动主义)、"haterade"(极端仇恨)、"otherize"(异己)和"herd mentality"(羊群心态),它们都曾出现在2016年的白宫选战中。

"We are getting a convergence of high-level politics and online language in quite a new way," Stevenson said. "We had all the words around Brexit in the last update and we are now starting to see all the words around Trump coming into the dictionary."

史蒂文森说:"我们以新的形式将高级政治和网络用语结合。在上一次更新词典数据库时,我们吸收了所有与英国脱欧有关的词语。现在,我们正在将与特朗普有关的词语收录到在线词典中。"

Stevenson said that new terms from Trump, his supporters and opponents were emerging more rapidly than in the past. "We have lots to add all the time. We don't have 'fake news' or 'alternative fact' this time, because they have just started gaining currency, but I am sure they will be in the next update," he added.

史蒂文森说,来自特朗普及其支持者与反对者的这些新词的出现速度比以往任何时候都快。他还补充说:"我们总是有很多词语要添加。这一次,我们没有收录'fake news'(假消息)及'alternative fact'(另类事实),因为它们刚开始流传,但我可以确定的是下次更新词典时,它们将被收入。"

As well as political terms, public conversations about diet, fitness and gender were a strong influence on the words included in the latest update. "Superfruit", a nutrient-rich fruit considered to be especially beneficial for health and wellbeing; HIIT, the acronym for high-intensity interval training; and "third gender", a category of people who do not identify simply as male or female, all made it into the online database.

与政治词汇一样,人们关于饮食、健康和性别的交谈也对这次的词汇更新造成了很大的影响。"Superfruit"(超级水果),指的是一种富含营养的水果,对身体健康非常有益;"HIIT",是"high-intensity interval training"(高强度间隔训练)的首字母缩写;"third gender"(第三性别),指的是那种无法被简单判定为男性或女性的群体。这些词语都被纳入了在线数据库中。

Social media were the source for many of the new coinages, though most were the kind of compounds that would have language purists clutching their pearls. "Craptacular" (remarkably poor and disappointing), "bronde" (hair dyed both blond and brunette) and "fitspiration" (a person or thing that serves as motivation for someone to sustain or improve health and fitness) all made the cut.

社交媒体是许多新鲜词汇的来源,尽管其中的大多数词语都是复合词,这些复合词会让语言纯粹主义者大惊失色。"Craptacular"(意思是特别的穷困和沮丧)、"bronde"(指的是被染成金色和浅黑色的头发)以及"fitspiration"(指的是一个人或一种物品,用来作为维持或提升某人健康的动力)都达标了。

Stevenson said the need for brevity on Twitter was not responsible for rising numbers of compound words, but it had widened the pool of those inventing new terms. "People feel much freer to coin their own words these days," he said, advising anyone who wished to make a permanent dent in the English language to make sure that their word sounded attractive. Citing the word "vlog", he said ugly-sounding words tended not to gain very wide currency. He added: "They have to have a euphonious sound."

史蒂文森说,推特对词汇简洁性的要求并不是复合词数量的增加的原因,但这的确为创造新词汇的人们拓宽了道路。"如今,人们可以更自由地创造词语,"他说,他建议那些想要在英语词汇上留下永久印记的人们务必要确保他们所创造的新词发音好听。他引用"vlog"这个词,然后说发音很难听的词一般都不会被大家广泛使用。他补充说:"这些词语得有一个悦耳的读音。"

英文来源:卫报

译文来源:中国日报英语点津

图片来源:高品图像

热门推荐 换一换

市场合作联系

联系人靳华
电话010-62927777-6236
QQ24809762
E-mailjinhua#wps.cn / jinhua#kingsoft.com

广告合作联系

联系人赵先生
电话010-62927777-6252
QQ1659607760
E-mailzhaohaifeng1#kingsoft.com