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炎炎夏日,我们可以吃冰淇淋和冻酸奶,那么古人在热天里吃什么来降温解暑呢?

在炎热的夏日,人们的胃口一般都不好。相比一碗热汤面,冰淇淋和水果听上去更清凉提神。

在过去,中国古人在夏天也吃“冰淇淋”和水果制品。来看看古人在热天里享用的三种美食。

Su shan 酥山

Su shan is a dish that looks like crushed ice with milk and butter.

酥山是一种用牛奶、奶油制成的看起来像刨冰的美食。

Poet Wang Lingran from the Tang Dynasty (618-907) described how people made and enjoyed su shan in his poem Ode to Su He Shan. According to the text, sugar was added to su shan that was shaped into many forms. Sometimes, su shan was decorated with flowers and leaves to make it more beautiful.

唐代诗人王泠然在诗歌《苏合山赋》中描述了人们如何制作和享用酥山。根据诗中所介绍的,人们在酥中加入糖,并做出各种造型。有时候,酥山还用花朵、树叶作为装饰。

"It is neither solid, nor watery and disappears once it touches teeth," the poet wrote.

王泠然在诗中写道:“非固非絺;触皓齿而便消”。

The su shan in his poem was thought by many scholars to be an early form of ice cream. However, only the royals and nobles were lucky enough to have large iceboxes to create the delicacy in summer.

他笔下的酥山被很多学者认为是冰淇淋的早期形态。不过,只有王公贵族才有幸拥有大型冰窖来制作这一夏日美食。

Ice and iced beverages 冰食和冷饮

Although there were no fridges in ancient times, iceboxes to store ice cubes in summer had become very common in rich families by the Tang Dynasty.

尽管古代没有冰箱,但有钱人家夏天用冰窖来储存冰块在唐代已经很普遍了。

At that time, people either had ice water or crunched shaved ice.

那时候,人们既可以喝冰水也可以吃冰沙。

People could easily buy iced beverages on the street during the Song Dynasty (960-1279). As a community service, some rich people even provided free ice water and medicine on the street for free.

在宋代,人们很容易就能在街上买到用冰镇的冷饮。一些有钱人家甚至义务地在街头路边“散暑药冰水”。

Ice water sold during the Song Dynasty was often added to mung beans or licorice to help prevent heat stroke.

宋代市面上出售的冰水还经常被加入绿豆汤或甘草汤来帮助人们祛暑降温。

Cherries with cheese and cane syrup 糖酪浇樱桃

During the Wei, Jin and Southern and Northern dynasties (220-581), dairy food appeared more frequently on ancient Chinese people's tables.

在魏晋南北朝时期,奶制品越来越多地出现在中国古人的餐桌上。

People made three kinds of cheese. One was called tian lao, or sweet cheese, which tasted like cheese yet looked like yogurt. Another is gan lao, or dried cheese, similar to solid cheese eaten today. The last one is cu lao, a kind of half-sour, half-sweet cheese, like yogurt.

当时有三种酪制品。一种叫甜酪,味道是奶酪的口感,但形态上更近似酸奶。另一种叫干酪,比较接近我们今天吃的固态西式奶酪制品。还有一种叫酢酪,类似于酸奶,味道酸甜。

The climate in the Yellow River area in the Tang Dynasty was warmer and moister, very different from today. Many cherry trees were planted there at that time. The fruit was common in early summer and people often added cheese and cane syrup to the cherries.

唐代黄河流域的气候更为温暖潮湿,与今日很不相同。许多樱桃树就是在那个时候被栽种在那里的。初夏樱桃大量结实,人们经常将乳酪、蔗糖和樱桃混拌在一起享用。

Lu You, a noted poet from the Song Dynasty, once wrote: "eat cherry, peach and cheese at the same time".

宋代诗人陆游有诗句云:“蜡樱、桃子、酪同时。”

Thus in the Song Dynasty, when ancient Chinese people sent cherries as gifts, cheese was often presented together.

因而在宋代,古人在馈赠樱桃的时候,常常连同乳酪一并奉送。

When rich noble people had cherries with cheese and cane syrup, they often used plates and bowls made of gold or colored glaze to make the fruit look more mouthwatering.

当富有的贵人享用糖酪浇樱桃时,他们经常用金盘、彩画榼等器皿来盛放,让这道美食在视觉上更加赏心悦目。

(本文内容主要参考孟晖所著的《花露天香》一书)

文章来源:中国日报英语点津

图片来源:高品图像


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