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如果让你说出历史上重要的发明家,你可能会先从爱迪生,贝尔或达芬奇说起。那你知道玛丽•安德森或安冢本吗?下面列举的九项发明都来自勇于突破的女性。如果没有她们,我们根本无法使用到这些产品。

1. Computer software - Grace Hopper

1.电脑软件—格蕾丝•霍珀

After joining the US Navy during the World War II, Rear Admiral Grace Hopper was assigned to work on a new computer, called the Mark 1.

二战期间加入美国海军后,海军少将格蕾丝•霍珀被指派开发新电脑。这个电脑名为马克1。

It wasn't long before she was at the forefront of computer programming in the 1950s.

不久后,她便成为20世纪50年代计算机编程的领头人物。

She was behind the compiler, which could translate instructions into code that computers can read, making programming quicker and ultimately revolutionizing how computers worked.

霍珀是编程器背后的英雄。编程器可以将指示转换为电脑可读写的代码,加速编程进程,最终改变电脑的运行方式。

Hopper also helped popularized the term "de-bugging" that we still use on computers programs today, after a moth was removed from inside her machine.

霍珀在自己的电脑里抓出一只飞蛾后,便开始帮助推广电脑调试故障排除的功能,这个功能的说法“de-bugging”至今仍在广泛使用。

"Amazing Grace", as she was known, continued working with computers until she retired from the navy as its oldest serving officer, aged 79.

被称为“神奇格蕾丝”的霍珀一直从事计算机领域的工作,到79岁才退休,是当时美国海军最老的现役军官。

2. Caller ID and call waiting - Dr Shirley Ann Jackson

2.来电显示和呼叫等待功能-雪莉•安•杰克逊博士

Dr Shirley Ann Jackson is an American theoretical physicist, whose research from the 1970s is responsible for caller ID and call waiting.

雪莉•安•杰克逊博士是美国一名理论物理学家,从上世纪七十年代起,她便承担来电显示和呼叫等待功能的研究。

Her breakthroughs in telecommunications have also enabled others to invent the portable fax, fibre optic cables and solar cells.

她在电子通讯方面的突破也让便携式传真机、光缆以及太阳能电池的发明成为可能。

She is the first African-American woman to gain a PhD from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the first African-American woman to lead a top-ranked research university.

她是第一位从美国马萨诸塞理工学院获得博士学位且领导顶尖研究型大学的非洲裔美国女性。

3. Windscreen wiper - Mary Anderson

3.风挡雨刮器—玛丽•安德森

On a winter's day of 1903, Mary Anderson was visiting New York City when she noticed that her driver was forced to open his window, just to the clear the snow from his windscreen.

1903年的一个冬天,玛丽•安德森到访纽约市,她注意到司机必须得打开窗户来清除挡风玻璃上的积雪。

Every time the window was open, the passengers in the car got colder.

但每次打开窗户,车内的乘客都会感到寒冷。

Anderson started drawing her solution of a rubber blade that could be moved from inside the car, and in 1903 was awarded a patent for her device.

安德森开始思考解决这个问题的方法。后来,她发明了一个可以在车内移动的橡胶叶片并于1903年获得专利。

But the invention proved unsuccessful with car companies, who believed it would distract drivers.

但是这项发明并不符合汽车公司的要求,它们认为这会使司机开车时分心。

Anderson never profited from her invention, even when the wipers later became standard on cars.

安德森从未从自己的发明上获取一丝利润,即便后来雨刷成为了汽车的标配。

4. Space station batteries - Olga D Gonzalez-Sanabria

4.太空站电池——奥尔加•冈萨雷斯-萨纳布里亚

It might not have the catchiest name on this list, but the long cycle-life nickel-hydrogen battery has helped power the International Space Station, so it's pretty important.

这个长寿命的镍氢电池可能不是这个榜单上最吸引眼球的,但是它能为国际空间站充电,因此十分重要。

Olga D Gonzalez-Sanabria, who is originally from Puerto Rico, developed technology which helped create these batteries in the 1980s and is now director of engineering at Nasa's Glenn Research Centre.

来自波多黎各的奥尔加•冈萨雷斯-萨纳布里亚在20世纪80年代开发了制造空间站电池的技术。她现在是美国国家航空航天局格伦研究中心的工程总监。

5. Dishwasher - Josephine Cochrane

5、洗碗机——约瑟芬•科克伦

A frequent entertainer, Cochrane wanted a machine that would wash her dishes faster than her servants, and be less likely to break them.

演艺事业繁忙的艺人科克伦想要一台能够比她的仆人洗碗快,而且不会把碗打碎的洗碗机。

Her machine, which involved a motor turning a wheel inside a copper boiler, was the first automatic dishwasher to use water pressure.

她发明了第一台用水压的全自动洗碗机,洗碗机内的铜锅内有个轮子,由马达转动来运转。

Cochrane's alcoholic husband had left her with masses of debt after his death and this motivated her to patent her invention in 1886 and open her own production factory.

科克伦嗜酒成瘾的丈夫在死后留给她一大笔债务,这使得她在1886年为自己的发明申请了专利并且开了属于自己的洗碗机工厂。

6. Home security system - Marie Van Brittan Brown

6、家庭安全系统——玛丽•布朗

A nurse, who was often home alone, Marie Van Brittan Brown came up with an idea that would make her feel safer.

玛丽•布朗是一名护士,她经常一个人在家。所以她想了一个办法,让自己更有安全感。

Together with her husband Albert, Van Brittan Brown developed the first home security system in response to the rising crime rates and slow police responses of the 1960s.

为了应对上世纪60年代的犯罪率上升以及警方的低效行动,布朗和丈夫阿尔伯特一起发明了世界上第一个家庭安全系统。

The device was complicated, with a camera powered by a motor which moved up and down the door to look through a peephole.

这个设备中的摄像头由马达驱动,沿着门上下移动,通过窥视孔进行观察,结构十分复杂。

A monitor in her bedroom also came equipped with an alarm button.

她卧室的监视器装有报警按钮。

7. Stem cell isolation - Ann Tsukamoto

7.干细胞分离技术—— 安冢本

Her patent was awarded in 1991 and since then Tsukamoto's work has led to great advancements in understanding the blood systems of cancer patients, which could lead to a cure for the disease.

这项专利于1991年获得认证。从那时起,安冢本的这项技术大大促进了人们对癌症病人血液系统的了解,为癌症的治愈开拓了新道路。

Tsukamoto is currently conducting further research into stem cell growth and is the co-patentee on more than seven other inventions.

如今,安冢本正在进一步研究干细胞生长。同时她还是七项以上其他发明的共同专利权所有人。

8. Kevlar - Stephanie Kwolek

8.凯夫拉纤维——斯蒂芬妮•科沃莱克

This chemist invented the lightweight fibre used in bullet-proof vests and body armour.

这位化学家发明了用于制造防弹背心和防弹衣的轻质纤维。

Since her discovery in 1965, the material, which is five times stronger than steel, has saved lives and is used by millions every day.

这种比钢铁还坚固五倍的材料,自1965年发现以来,挽救了无数生命,每天有数百万的人使用。

It's found in products ranging from household gloves and mobile phones to aeroplanes and suspension bridges.

家用手套、手机、飞机和吊桥等各式各样的产品都使用了该材料。

9. Monopoly - Elizabeth Magie

9.大富翁游戏——伊丽莎白•马吉

A man named Charles Darrow is often credited with creating the most popular board game in history, but the rules were in fact invented by Elizabeth Magie.

查里斯•达路经常被夸赞创造了历史上最受欢迎的棋盘游戏,但事实上,游戏的规则是由伊丽莎白•马吉创造的。

Magie wanted to demonstrate the problems with capitalism with an innovative game in which players traded fake money and property.

马吉希望能通过一个创新的游戏来揭露资本主义所存在的问题。在游戏中玩家们可以用虚假的货币和货物进行交易。

Her design, which she patented in 1904, was called The Landlord's Game.

她的游戏于1904年获得专利,并被称为“地主的游戏”。

The game of Monopoly that we know today was published in 1935 by the Parker Brothers, who discovered that Darrow was not the sole creator and had, for just $500, bought Magie's patent and, well, monopolized the game.

我们今天知道的大富翁游戏是由派克兄弟公司于1935年发布的,他们发现达路并不是游戏的唯一创始人,他们只用了500美元的价格购买了马吉的专利,成为了游戏的唯一拥有者。

文章来源:中国日报英语点津

图片来源:高品图像

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