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历史上的探险家们一直在寻找传说中的不老泉,尽管人们从未找到神秘的不老泉,但世界上一些地方却因为居民寿命远超世界平均水平(约71岁)而受到关注,它们都有各自神秘的活力源泉。

根据2017年《全球幸福指数报告》排名,BBC采访了一些世界上最长寿国家的居民,以探究这些地方的长寿奥秘。

Japan 日本

Living to 83 on average, the Japanese have long had one of the highest life expectancies. Okinawa, often called ‘the land of immortals’, has been a global centre for longevity research, as these southern Japanese islands have more than 400 centenarians. Much credit for this has been given to the local diet, which includes plentiful tofu and sweet potato, and a small amount of fish. Active social circles among older residents and a strong community also contribute to lower levels of stress and a strong sense of belonging.

日本人的平均寿命为83岁,一直是预期寿命最高的人群之一。“长寿之岛”冲绳一直是全球长寿研究的中心,因为在这些日本南部列岛上,有400多名百岁以上老人。当地饮食功不可没,包括丰富多样的豆腐和甘薯,还有少量的鱼类。当地老年居民社交圈活跃,社区关系紧密,这也有助于减轻压力,增强归属感。

To reap these benefits, learning the language as an expat is critical, said Daniele Gatti, CEO of Velvet Media and long-time Japan resident. “Japan has an amazing quality of life if you can get past the language hurdle to better understand the mentality” – which is more different from Western culture than most visitors think, he added. “Expats willing to move here should think seriously about putting a major time allocation into learning the language. It’s key to integrating deeper in the local society and living a full and meaningful life.”

长期居住在日本的天鹅绒媒体公司首席执行官达尼埃尔•加蒂说,对移居日本的外国人来说,要获得这些好处,学习日语非常重要。他还说,“如果能跨越语言障碍,更好地理解当地人的思维方式,你在日本的生活质量会非常高。”他还补充说,日本与西方文化的差异超越大多数游客的想象。愿意移居这里的外国人应该认真考虑一下,多花些时间学日语。这对更深层次地融入当地社会,过上充实而有意义的生活非常关键。”

Spain 西班牙

The Mediterranean diet, rich in heart-healthy olive oil, vegetables and wine, has long contributed to Spain’s long-lived population (averaging 82.8). But Spain has another longevity secret up its sleeve: the siesta.

长期以来,富含有益心脏健康成分的橄榄油、蔬菜和葡萄酒的地中海饮食对西班牙人的长寿贡献良多(平均寿命82.8岁)。但西班牙还有另一个长寿秘诀:午休。

“People think all the Spaniards are doing la siesta when the shops are closed between 2:00 and 5:00, but it is simply how the working shift is organised,” said Miquel Àngel Diez i Besora from Barcelona and Gray Line tour guide. “If you have a continuous shift and just a half an hour break for lunch, then you eat a quick takeaway. On the contrary, if you are forced to stop for two or three hours, then you go home or go to a restaurant where you can sit down, eat two courses and dessert, and have time enough to digest well, it’s going to be healthier than a takeaway.”

巴塞罗那和格雷线导游米克尔•安赫尔•迭斯说,“人们认为,下午两点到五点,店铺打烊,所有的西班牙人都在午睡,但这里的工作就是这么安排的。如果你有连班要上,中间只有半小时时间吃午饭,那么你就只能赶紧点个外卖。但如果你不得不午休两三个小时,你就可以回家或者去餐馆,坐下来吃两道菜和甜点,还有充足的时间细嚼慢咽,这可比吃外卖健康多了。”

The density of Spanish cities also gets people moving more, since shops and restaurants all tend to be within walking distance of most people’s residences.

西班牙城市人口密集,这也促使人们常常走动,因为商店和餐馆与大多数人的住所往往很近。

“When I moved to Barcelona from Moscow, I noticed that people here favour walking or biking, even walking few blocks to take public transport instead of using their own vehicles,” said Marina Manasyan, co-founder of Barcelona Eat Local Food Tours. “You get your cells oxygenated and you reduce your carbon footprint.”

巴塞罗那当地食品旅行社联合创始人玛丽娜•马纳相说,“从莫斯科搬到巴塞罗那时,我注意到,这里的人喜欢步行或骑车,有的甚至步行几个街区去坐公交车,而不是自己开车。这会使你的身体氧气满满,还能减少碳足迹。”

Singapore 新加坡

With broad access to the country’s state-of-the-art medical facilities and what’s been called a ‘miracle’ healthcare system, Singaporeans are living longer than ever at an average of 83.1 years old. The country has one of the lowest maternal and infant mortality rates in the world, and makes preventative care a focus of its healthcare.

新加坡人能广泛享受到先进的医疗设施和被称为“奇迹”的医疗体系,平均寿命为83.1岁,比以往任何时候都要长。这里的孕产妇和婴儿死亡率全球最低,预防性治疗是该国医疗的重点。

The culture and accessible urban environment also contributes to a longer life. “You will see a lot of people going to gyms or exercising in the public parks, which are plentiful,” said Bino Chua, a current resident and travel blogger at I Wander. The country even recently opened its first therapeutic park, designed to reduce stress and improve mental wellbeing among aging adults.

文化环境和亲近的城市环境也有助于延长居民寿命。新加坡居民、I Wander旅游博主蔡比诺说,“你会看到很多人去健身房,或者在公园锻炼身体,这里的健身房和公园非常多。”最近这里还开放了第一个治疗公园,以减轻老年人的压力,改善他们的心理健康。

Health-averse habits are also harder to maintain in Singapore. “Expats should know that ‘vices’ are a lot more expensive here,” said Chau. “Cigarettes and alcohol are heavily taxed and cost a lot more than in other countries.”

在新加坡,不健康的习惯也很难维持。比诺说,“移居这里的外国人应该知道,这里保持‘恶习’的代价很高。政府对香烟和酒精征收重税,所以价格比其他国家要高得多。”

Switzerland 瑞士

Men fare better in Switzerland than anywhere else in the world, living to be 81 on average. As one of Europe’s wealthiest countries, access to high-quality healthcare, strong personal safety and sense of wellbeing contributes to the high rank – with some studies even pointing to the country’s high intake of cheese and dairy as a leading factor.

瑞士人的生活比世界上任何地方都好,平均寿命为81岁。瑞士是欧洲最富裕的国家之一、医疗保健质量高、个人安全意识强、人们幸福感较高,这些都有助于这里的人保持长寿。一些研究还指出,瑞士人大量摄入奶酪和奶制品也是长寿的主要因素之一。

Though the country can be very career focused with many expats moving for work at one of the country’s many international headquarters, its central location makes it easy to balance frequent relaxing escapes. “It’s a career pinnacle, location-wise,” said Gatti, who has also lived in Switzerland. “Living here allows for wonderful weekend trips all over the continent and to spend time outdoors in the enchanting Alps.” The private schools are also some of the “best on the planet,” he added, which makes it appealing to young families.

虽然瑞士人事业心很强,有许多外国人移居到瑞士在众多国际总部工作,但其处于欧洲中部的地理位置也让人们很容易外出度假放松。曾居住在瑞士的加蒂说,“这里是人们事业的巅峰,而且位置优越。居住在瑞士,周末你就可以环游欧洲大陆,还可以去迷人的阿尔卑斯山旅游。”他还说,这里还有“全球最好的”私立学校,因此对年轻家庭很有吸引力。

South Korea 韩国

South Korea is set to be the first country to hit a life expectancy of 90 years according to recent research, which credits a strong and growing economy, broad access to healthcare and lower blood pressure than Western countries for its upward trajectory.

根据最近的研究,韩国将成为第一个预期寿命达到90岁的国家,这归功于韩国经济增长强劲,人们广泛享受到良好的医疗条件,居民血压低于西方国家,因此人均寿命一直在上升。

The country also has a diet rich in fermented foods, which are said to lower cholesterol, boost immunity and inhibit cancer. “As a whole, Korean food is high in fibre and nutrient-dense,” Hoheb said.

韩国饮食富含发酵食品,据称可以降低胆固醇,提高免疫力,抑制癌症。全球养生旅游创始人霍希伯说,“总体而言,韩国食品富含纤维,营养丰富。”

Residents say a cultural focus on community and the associated traditions contributes to the everyday quality of life here. “The Jimjilbang (public bathhouse) brings together people to recreate, to socialise and to help reduce stress,” said Camille Hoheb, founder of Wellness Tourism Worldwide. “In South Korea, there’s also an overall sense of mindfulness that comes with the Buddhist mindset and an overall attitude toward a culture of cooperation versus individualism.”

当地居民表示,重视社区和相关传统的文化氛围有助于提高这里的日常生活质量。卡米尔•霍希伯说,“韩国汗蒸馆(公共澡堂)让人们齐聚一堂,消遣,社交,有助于减轻压力。总体来看,韩国人有一种来自佛教思维的正念意识,和注重合作并反对个人主义的心态。”


文章来源:中国日报英语点津

图片来源:高品图像

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