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rumour [ˈru:mə(r)]n.传闻,谣言; 流言;vt.谣传;

自疫情全球大流行以来,在传统媒体和社交媒体上,谎言、谣传和阴谋论甚嚣尘上。该文梳理了新冠肺炎疫情中关于中国的16个最常见谣言,基于科学知识和事实论证逐一批驳,希望藉此为相关讨论注入更多实事求是和开诚布公的精神。

全文如下:

当前,新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情全球蔓延。有关新冠病毒(SARS-CoV-2)的来源、传播等问题的报道和讨论中掺杂了许多不符事实的说法。在社交媒体和一些传统媒体上,谎言、谣传和阴谋论甚嚣尘上。

As COVID-19 wreaks havoc around the world, there has been much misinformation surrounding public discourse about the origin and transmission of the COVID-19 virus (also called SARS-CoV-2). Lies, rumors and conspiracy theories have been widely circulating on social media and some established media.

其传播者各有动机,有的意在诽谤抹黑政治和体制对手,有的甚至意图打击栽赃特定国家、民族及宗教。中国尤其受到这种“信息流行病”的冲击。

The motives behind these actions are varied, some are aimed at slandering political and ideological opponents, others target specific countries, ethnicities and religions. China is often at the receiving end of this "infodemic" of misinformation.

本文梳理了新冠肺炎疫情中关于中国的16个最常见谣言,基于科学知识和事实论证逐一批驳,希望藉此为相关讨论注入更多实事求是和开诚布公的精神。

The following are the 16 most common rumors about the COVID-19 epidemic related to China. All of these rumors were debunked one by one based on scientific knowledge and facts, with hope to make public discourse around the topic more informed, honest, and truthful.

1

谣言:新冠病毒是由中国的实验室培养而来。

The COVID-19 virus is engineered at a Chinese laboratory.

真相:所有现有证据表明,新冠病毒源于自然。

All evidence points to that SARS-CoV-2 has originated in nature.

新冠病毒是近几十年来众所周知的冠状病毒中的一种新类型。世卫组织指出,所有现有证据表明,新冠病毒源于自然,而非人工合成。目前,科学界尚未澄清新冠病毒的具体自然来源,只有关于该病毒可能与蝙蝠和穿山甲相关联的猜测。

The SARS-CoV-2 is a new type of coronavirus, which contains a family of viruses that can cause illness in animals and humans. The World Health Organization noted that all available evidence suggests that the virus has an animal origin and is not manipulated or constructed in a lab or somewhere else. The possible animal source of COVID-19 has not yet been confirmed, and there are only speculations that it is possibly related to bat and pangolin.

柏林夏利特医院病毒研究所所长德罗斯腾教授(Christian Drosten)与其他26名国际知名科学家今年2月在医学杂志《柳叶刀》上发表声明,谴责认为新冠病毒非自然起源的阴谋论。

Christian Drosten, the top virologist at Berlin's Charite hospital, and 26 other renowned scientists published a statement on the journal Lancet in February refuting the conspiracy theory that the virus is artificially made.

3月中旬,以瑞典微生物学教授安德森(Kristian Andersen)为首的多名科研人员在《自然医学》杂志发表了关于新冠病毒起源的论文。研究人员在论文中指出,关于新冠病毒的实验室起源论不可信,并强调该病毒不是人工合成的产物。

Kristian Andersen, an associate professor of immunology and microbiology at the Scripps Research Institute in Sweden, and other researchers published a paper on the origin of the virus in Nature Medicine in mid-March. The paper pointed out that SARS-CoV-2 is not a laboratory construct or a purposefully manipulated virus.

汉堡大学生物风险跨学科研究小组负责人杰瑞米艾斯教授(Gunnar Jeremias)在接受“和平面孔”倡议的采访中驳斥关于新冠病毒起源阴谋论。他指出,“即使全世界最好的实验室也无法制造此种病毒。”

In an interview with Faces of Peace, Gunnar Jeremias, professor at the University of Hamburg in Germany, also refuted such conspiracy theory and said even the best laboratory in the world could not create this virus out of thin air.

2

谣言:新冠病毒源自中国武汉病毒研究所实验室事故。

The SARS-CoV-2 was released as the result of lab accident at the Wuhan Institute of Virology.

真相:武汉病毒研究所与新冠病毒的起源毫无关系。

The Wuhan Institute of Virology has nothing to do with the virus' origin.

中科院武汉病毒研究所的国家生物安全实验室具有经认证的P4防护等级(欧洲称BSL-4,同柏林的罗伯特·科赫研究所的S4高安全性实验室防护等级一致),可处理世界上最致命的病原体。

Established in 1956, the institute is the top virology research agency in China and home to Asia's highest-level biosafety lab. The institute's P4 biosecurity lab can handle the deadliest pathogens in the world.

该实验室距武汉市中心约30公里,病毒不可能从这样高安全级别实验室泄漏。中国科学院武汉分院院长、武汉病毒研究所研究员袁志明在2020年4月18日接受中国国际电视台(CGTN)采访时明确指出,新冠病毒绝非源自武汉病毒研究所。在2019年12月30日接收新冠肺炎患者的首批检测试样前,武汉病毒研究所的实验室内并无新冠病毒。截至目前,该研究所内也无人感染新冠肺炎。袁志明表示,能够理解武汉的实验室会引发民众联想。但如果有个别人试图故意误导民众,这种行径就十分恶劣。关于新冠病毒源自武汉病毒研究所的说法纯粹是莫须有的猜测。

The laboratory is about 30 kilometers away from the center of Wuhan. It is impossible for the virus to leak from such a high-security laboratory, said Yuan Zhiming, a researcher at Wuhan Institute of Virology, in an interview with CGTN on April 18. He said there is no way the virus could have originated from the institute. Before accepting the first batch of test samples of COVID-19 patients on Dec 30, the institute's labs did not have the novel coronavirus. As of now, no one in the institute has contracted COVID-19. It is understandable that people would have speculation about the institute, he said. But if some people try to deliberately mislead the public, their behavior is repugnant.

生态健康联盟(EcoHealth Alliance)是一家总部设在美国纽约的非营利组织。该联盟主席达什亚克博士(Peter Daszak)负责研究全球新发传染病并已与武汉病毒研究所合作长达15年。达什亚克在2020年4月16日接受美国新闻网站“DemocracyNow”采访时表示,关于新冠病毒从实验室逃逸的说法纯粹是胡说八道。武汉病毒研究所的实验室内没有与新冠病毒相关的病毒培养,所谓实验室泄漏绝无可能。

EcoHealth Alliance is a non-profit organization based in New York. The chairman of the alliance, Peter Daszak, is responsible for studying emerging infectious diseases worldwide and has been cooperating with the Wuhan Institute of Virology for 15 years. In an interview with the American news website DemocracyNow on April 16, Dashyak said that the claim that the novel coronavirus escaped from the laboratory was pure nonsense. There is no virus cultivation related to the new coronavirus in the laboratory of the Wuhan Institute of Virology, therefore the so-called laboratory leak is impossible.

美国记者布鲁门塔尔(Max Blumenthal)和辛格(Ajit Singh)2020年4月20日在“灰色地带”网站撰文表示,关于新冠病毒从武汉病毒研究所泄漏的阴谋论是特朗普政府有针对性的虚假信息武器。此次虚假宣传活动的规模能够与“伊拉克拥有所谓大规模杀伤性武器”相提并论。虽然上述武器从未被发现,但美国却将之作为入侵伊拉克的借口。

American journalists Max Blumenthal and Ajit Singh wrote a report on the Grayzone on April 20 that the conspiracy theory about the virus escaping from China's Wuhan Institute of Virology is Trump administration's weapon of false information. It recalls the successful disinformation campaign launched by neoconservatives in the George W. Bush administration about Iraq having weapons of mass destruction. Although such weapons of mass destruction were never found, the US used them as excuses to invade Iraq nonetheless.

3

谣言:新型冠状病毒是一种中国病毒,因为它来源于武汉。

The novel coronavirus is a Chinese virus because it came from Wuhan.

真相:新冠病毒正式名称为SARS-CoV-2,武汉是首个报告新冠肺炎病例的地方,但并不一定是新冠病毒的来源地。

The official name for the virus is SARS-CoV-2. Wuhan is where the COVID-19 case was first reported, but it is not necessary the place where the virus originates.

2019年12月,武汉首次报告发现新冠病毒感染病例,当时被称为不明原因肺炎。但病毒的确切来源尚无明确的科学结论。历史上,病毒首次发现地往往并非来源地。艾滋病毒(HIV)感染病例最初由美国报告,但其起源地最有可能是在西非,在德国黑森州马尔堡首先发现的马尔堡病毒极有可能起源于乌干达。

In December 2019, Wuhan reported the first COVID-19 case, which was then called pneumonia of unknown cause. But scientists so far do not know the exact origin of the virus. Historically speaking, a place where a virus was first reported is often not where it had originated. For example, cases of HIV infection were initially reported in the United States, but its origin was most likely in West Africa. The Marburg virus was first discovered in Marburg, Hesse, Germany, but it was most likely originated in Uganda.

为避免污名化,世卫组织于2015年出台人类传染病和病原体命名相关建议,指出应避免使用地名、国名和人物、动物名称及可能引发恐慌的概念,新冠病毒于2020年2月11日被正式命名为SARS-CoV-2。

In order to avoid stigmatization, the WHO issued recommendations on the naming of human infectious diseases and pathogens in 2015, discouraging the use of regions, countries, individuals and animals in the naming. The novel coronavirus was officially named SARS-CoV-2 on Feb 11.

著名的科学杂志《自然》于2020年4月7日发表社论呼吁立即停止冠状病毒污名化,避免此类将病毒及其疾病与特定位置相关联的不负责行为。

Renowned scientific journal Nature published an editorial on April 7, saying it is irresponsible and stigmatizing to associate COVID-19 with specific locations.

事实上,新冠肺炎大流行正在加剧种族主义和歧视,尤其是针对中国人和亚洲相貌的人士。亚裔人士在德国受到攻击的案件持续增加。

In fact, the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated racism and discrimination, especially against the Chinese and Asian people. The number of assaults toward Asian people in Germany is rising as a result.

4

谣言:中国早在2019年11月中旬就获悉疫情暴发,将有关信息隐瞒45天。

As early as mid-November, China has known about the COVID-19 outbreak but withheld the information for 45 days.

真相:中国官方机构于2019年12月27日首次收到不明原因肺炎病例报告,并于2019年12月31日发布了首份疫情通告。

Chinese authorities first received a report of the pneumonia case of unknown cause on Dec 27 and released its first outbreak notice on Dec 31.

2019年12月27日,湖北省中西医结合医院呼吸内科主任张继先向武汉市江汉区疾控中心报告三例不明原因肺炎病例。这是中国官方机构首次获得关于新冠肺炎疫情的信息。张医生近期接受采访时讲述了上报过程和病况信息。

On Dec 27, 2019, Zhang Jixian, director of the Department of Respiratory Medicine at the Hubei Provincial Hospital of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, reported three pneumonia cases of unknown cause to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention at Jianghan district in Wuhan. This was the first time that Chinese authorities obtained information about the disease. Zhang shared the reporting process at a recent interview.

基于核酸测试的流行病学调查,中国科学家团队对武汉2019年12月首批感染新冠病毒的患者进行了回溯性研究,研究成果于2020年1月24日发表于医学权威期刊《柳叶刀》。

Based on the epidemiological investigation of nucleic acid testing, a team of Chinese scientists conducted a retrospective study on the first batch of COVID-19 patients in Wuhan in December 2019. The research results were published in the authoritative medical journal the Lancet on

开展流行病学调查三天后,武汉市卫健委于2019年12月31日发布《关于当前我市肺炎疫情的情况通报》,并建议外出佩戴口罩。当天,累计发现27例不明原因肺炎,其中7例为重症。

After three days of epidemiological investigation, the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission released a briefing on its website about the pneumonia with unknown cause in the city on Dec 31, confirming 27 cases and telling the public not to go to enclosed public spaces or hold gatherings. It suggested wearing face masks when going out.

冬季是感冒、流感和肺炎多发季。新冠肺炎是一种同流感症状相似的新型传染病。武汉市有1100万居民,在这种情况下发现疫情并迅速确诊病患并非易事。因此,世卫组织总干事谭德塞和首席科学家斯瓦米纳桑在《柳叶刀》撰文对中国医生和卫生部门在流感季节迅速发现新冠病毒表示高度赞赏。

Winter is the season of cold, flu and pneumonia, and COVID-19 is a new type of infectious disease with symptoms similar to the flu. Wuhan has 11 million residents, so it is not easy to quickly detect and diagnose patients. The WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus and chief scientist Soumya Swaminathan wrote in a paper at the Lancet, praising Chinese doctors and health departments for their rapid discovery of the new coronavirus during the flu season.

5

谣言:中国长时间隐瞒新冠疫情暴发真相,才导致全球疫情暴发。

China has withheld key information about the epidemic, which has led to a worldwide pandemic.

真相:中国第一时间向本国和全球公众通报疫情,在最短时间内采取最严格的防控措施,为世界其他地区赢得了至少六周准备应对疫情的时间。

China has notified the world as early as possible, and resorted to the strictest epidemic control measures, which gave at least six weeks for other countries to get prepared for the outbreak.

中国很早就已经履行了向世卫组织通报新发疫情的义务。

China has notified the WHO at an early stage.

2019年12月31日,中国向世卫组织驻华代表处通报武汉出现不明原因肺炎疫情。

On Dec 31, the WHO China Office was informed of pneumonia cases of unknown cause detected in Wuhan.

2020年1月3日起,中国定期向世卫组织、包括美国在内的有关国家以及中国港澳台地区及时、主动通报疫情信息。

Starting Jan 3, China began to share epidemic data with the WHO, Hong Kong and Macao Special Administrative Regions, and other countries including the United States.

2020年1月8日,国家卫生健康委专家评估组初步确认新冠病毒为疫情病原。

On Jan 8, the National Health Commission expert panel made an initial judgement that the novel coronavirus caused the epidemic.

1月12日,中国向世卫组织提交新冠病毒基因组序列信息,在全球流感共享数据库(GISAID)发布5株新冠病毒完整基因序列,全球共享。

On Jan 12, China submitted to the WHO the genome sequence of the novel coronavirus, which was published by the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data and shared globally.

1月16日,聚合酶链式反应(PCR)诊断试剂优化完成。

On Jan 16, China optimized the PCR Diagnostic Reagent

1月20日,国家卫健委高级别专家组通报,基于扎实的流行病学研究证实新冠病毒可人传人。

On Jan 20, the National Health Commission notified that the novel coronavirus could pass among humans, based on clinical evidence.

世卫组织4月8日在其官网确认上述时间线。

The timeline was confirmed by the WHO on its website.

宣称中国“隐瞒真相”的潜台词是:中国政府早已认识新冠肺炎的危险性,但仍未对此采取透明做法。这并不符合事实真相。新冠病毒是新发现的病毒,在疫情初期,几乎没有任何可供借鉴的科学依据,证明这种新型病毒可能会导致危险的大流行病。

The subtext to accuse China for withholding information is that China had known the virus is dangerous and didn't want to be honest about it, which is not true. For a completely new virus, there was limited scientific evidence indicating the pathogen could lead to a pandemic.

而在最终证实病毒可人传人,且极有可能引发比流感更高的死亡率之后,中国政府立即向公众发出警告,采取了最为严格、全面、彻底的防控措施。1月23日,武汉封城。1月25日,6000万人口的湖北省封省。

Moreover, when the virus was later confirmed to be transmissible among humans and that it was potentially more dangerous than the seasonal flu, China adopted the strictest and most comprehensive control measures, including locking down the city of Wuhan on Jan 23, and restricting movement of the entire 60 million residents in Hubei province two days later.

当武汉2020年1月23日封城之际,国内共有571例确诊,世界其他地区仅有10例确诊,欧洲尚无一例。当中国1月27日中止所有海外旅游之际,国内共有2741例确诊,世界其他地区有37例确诊,其中欧洲3例。当2月23日武汉封城一个月后,全球共有78811例确诊,其中只有2.2%在中国境外。而至到那时,除东亚以外,全世界其他国家几乎未采取任何有效预防措施。

When Wuhan was placed on lockdown, 571 domestic infections on the Chinese mainland and 9 total overseas cases had been reported, none of them in Europe, according to the National Health Commission. When China suspended all outbound tourist travel on Jan 27, the Chinese mainland had 2,744 infections, China's Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan had 17 infections, and the rest of the world had reported 33, three in Europe. By Feb 23 – a month after Wuhan was put on lockdown – the global tally was 78,811, of which only 2.2 percent were outside China. Between this period, only a handful of countries, save for East Asian nations, had adopted any form of effective prevention measures.

直到2020年3月初,一直在淡化和掩饰新冠肺炎疫情危险性和严重性的恰恰是美国特朗普政府。中国一个半月以来确诊感染数量激增,6000万人口大省湖北史无前例的封锁,已经向其发出了不能更明确的警告。《纽约时报》4月11日亦就此发表过深度调查文章。

The Trump administration had been downplaying the severity and danger of COVID-19 until early March. The surge of confirmed cases in China within a month and half, as well as the unprecedented lockdown of the Wuhan city, could not have sent a clearer and louder warning. The New York Times has published an investigative piece on April 11 on this topic.

6

谣言:中国为了隐瞒疫情暴发,逮捕了最早向世人示警的医生。

China attempted to suppress information about the epidemic by arresting whistle-blowing doctors.

真相:没有中国医生因为警告疫情遭到逮捕。上报疫情的医生受到国家嘉奖。

No doctors have been arrested for whistle-blowing. In contrary, doctors who reported the disease to their higher-ups were rewarded by central authorities.

2019年12月30日下午,眼科医生李文亮将一份病患肺部CT扫描件以及若干信息发至医科同学微信群,称“确诊了7例SARS”,建议注意防范,并请不要外传该消息。尽管如此,他的言论通过截屏在网上迅速传播。武汉警方于2020年1月3日请其前往派出所谈话,以训诫书的方式要求其停止传播流言,因为其涉及SARS的(错误)言论可能引发社会恐慌。

On Dec 30, Wuhan ophthalmologist Li Wenliang shared a lung CT scan and other medical records in a private WeChat (a popular instant-messaging app in China) group with his medical school classmates. Li claimed seven people were confirmed to have contracted SARS, and reminded the group members not to further spread such information. However, the screenshots were widely shared on the internet. On Jan 3, the Wuhan police reprimanded Li and asked him not to spread SARS-related rumors as they might cause social panic.

此后他正常回归工作岗位。1月中旬,他在治疗病患的过程中被感染,1月31日通过核酸检测确诊为新冠肺炎。2月7日,李医生经最大努力抢救无效病逝。同日,国家卫健委对其逝世公开表示哀悼。

Li was not fined or arrested, and returned to his post with no further punishment. In mid-January, Li got infected while treating a COVID-19 patient, and tested positive for COVID-19 on Jan 31. He died on Feb 7 after arduous rescue efforts. On the same day, the National Health Commission sent condolences for his death.

李医生不是西方定义的“吹哨人”。他既未通报疾控机构和卫生行政部门,也未向公众发出政府行为不当或掩盖事实的警告。事实上,张继先医生已于2019年12月27日向武汉市疾控部门通报出现异常肺炎病例增多的情况,政府部门早于李医生三天就已经开始积极介入调查,谨慎搜集证据,并于12月31日发布首个疫情通报。张医生也因此受到政府嘉奖。

Doctor Li is not a "whistle-blower" in the sense defined by western media. He had never reported the situation to health authorities, nor openly warned the public. As a matter of fact, on Dec 27, Zhang Jixian, another doctor in Wuhan, already notified local authorities about an unknown pneumonia, and the government had been investigating the situation for three days before Li made his claims in WeChat. Zhang was later rewarded for her actions.

2020年2月7日,国家监察委派出调查组赴武汉,就有关李文亮医生的问题开展调查。3月19日,调查组公布调查结论并召开记者会。同日,武汉市公安局通报了有关处理结果,认为训诫李文亮一案适用法律错误,决定撤销训诫书。

On Feb 7, the National Supervisory Commission sent a delegation to Wuhan to investigate issues related to Li's death. The findings were published on March 19, saying the police probe into the matter was carried out in accordance with the law, as the Law on the Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases has strict requirements on the reporting, verification and release of epidemic information. But the action taken by the police to reprimand Li was inappropriate, and the law enforcement procedure was also not up to standards. On the same day, the Wuhan police revoked the reprimand letter to Li, and sincerely apologized to his family.

李文亮是一名好医生,也是中共党员。4月2日,中国政府追认他为烈士。然而,李医生不幸逝世却被美国别有用心地利用,在毫无事实依据的情况下竟将李医生包装为“反共人士”,编造故事大肆炒作。“独立传媒研究所”详细调查了美方操纵李文亮事件的幕后伎俩。

Li was a good doctor, and a member of the Communist Party of China. On April 2, the Chinese government deemed him a martyr. However, the United States took advantage of his unfortunate death, and painted him as an anti-communist fighter, which is baseless. The Independent Media Institute has investigated the matter.

7

谣言:中国隐瞒并美化了新冠肺炎确诊和死亡人数。

China has whitewashed its COVID-19 confirmed and death cases.

真相:中国在新冠肺炎确诊和死亡人数统计上始终保持透明,不折不扣地履行了通报义务。

China has always been transparent on the numbers of confirmed and deceased cases, and has fulfilled its duty of notifying the public.

截至2020年4月20日,武汉市统计的新冠肺炎累计确诊病例为50333例,死亡病例3869例,死亡率为7.69%,高于世界平均水平。

By April 20, Wuhan reported 50,333 confirmed infections and 3,869 deaths, with a crude mortality rate of 7.69 percent, higher than the current global average.

中国全国较低的确诊和死亡病例归功于中国政府及时采取了最全面、最严格、最彻底的防控措施,包括关闭离汉通道等举措。根据《科学》杂志研究报告预估,上述措施使中国减少了超过70万的感染者。

China's relatively small numbers of confirmed and death cases were due to the nation's taking the strictest, most comprehensive and timely quarantine measures, including city-wide lockdown. These measures have reduced over 700,000 infections in China, according to an article published by the journal Science on March 30.

新冠肺炎疫情暴发以来,中国中央政府先后向湖北派出了42000多名医护人员,并在短短两周内在武汉建造了可容纳2500张重症病床的2家专门医院和19所临时改造的方舱医院,准备了约30000张轻症病床。所有疑似病例和密切接触者都实行了集中隔离。这些措施切断了传染链,阻止了疫情的进一步传播,实现总体较低的感染数据。德国《商报》社论对此经验表示肯定。

Since the outbreak, the Chinese central government has dispatched more than 42,000 medical workers to Hubei province, built two designated hospitals with a total of more than 2,000 beds for severe patients, as well as 16 mobile cabin hospitals hosting around 13,000 beds for mild cases in Wuhan. All suspected patients and those in close contact with confirmed patients have been quarantined in designated areas. These measures have cut off the chain of transmission and stopped the epidemic from spreading. German newspaper Handelsblatt has praised the measures in an editorial.

4月17日,武汉市政府订正了新冠肺炎死亡病例数量,从2579人上调至3869人。这一做法符合中国《传染病防治法》要求。在疫情总体得以控制后,武汉相关部门组建工作组,对确诊和死亡人数进行回溯和查实,完全符合国际通行做法。中方订正有关数据后,第一时间向全球公开通报,得到了世卫组织高度赞赏,认为中国努力“不漏掉任何一例死亡病例”。

On April 17, the Wuhan government revised the city's accumulated death toll of COVID-19 from 2,579 to 3,869, and the infection case from 50,008 to 50,333. The amendment is in line with the nation's relevant laws and regulations. It is also an international common practice to verify and revise statistics after the epidemic is under control. China released the updated numbers accurately and timely, and was praised by the WHO for leaving no case undocumented.

8

谣言:中国操纵世界卫生组织,以确保其不会批评中国。

China has manipulated the WHO to escape from global criticism.

真相:世卫组织是由194个联合国会员国组成的独立国际组织,不可能被操纵。

The WHO is an independent international organization with 194 members and it is impossible for any single nation to bend it to its will.

在世卫组织21人总部领导团队中,只有1位中国成员,11位来自美国、欧盟、加拿大。来自中国的任明辉自2016年1月以来担任世卫组织负责艾滋病、结核病、疟疾和被忽视的热带病防控事务的助理总干事。

Of the 21-strong leadership team at the WHO headquarters, 11 of them are from the United States, the European Union and Canada, and only one is from China. Ren Minghui has served as WHO's Assistant Director-General for HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, Malaria and Neglected Tropical Diseases since January 2016 and is continuing this work under the new title of Assistant Director-General for Communicable Diseases.

在宣布暂停缴纳世卫组织会费前,美国是世卫组织最大资金来源国。如将自愿捐款计算在内,中国在世卫组织资金来源国排名中位列第6。

The US was the biggest financial contributor to the WHO before it decided to cut off the funding recently. China ranks only the sixth in terms of funding, with voluntary donations considered.

世卫组织专家团队由来自医学和公共健康领域的专家组成,他们在抗击传染病领域积累了丰富经验,其工作依靠的是科学、证据和专业知识。

The WHO consists of senior experts from the medical and public health sector, who are seasoned veterans in the fight against contagious diseases. Their work relies on science, evidence and professional knowledge.

不仅是中国,几乎所有的成员国都明确支持世卫组织总干事谭德塞的工作。所谓谭德塞总干事“依赖中国”和“由中国支持才当选”,是毫无根据的。

In addition to China, almost all WHO members have clearly stated their support for the work done by WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus. It is baseless to claim he was elected due to China's help.

9

谣言:中国阻止台湾加入世卫组织,危害台湾人的健康。

The Chinese mainland obstructs Taiwan from entering the WHO, which has undermined the health of the people in Taiwan.

真相:台湾作为中国的一部分,无权参加只有主权国家才能加入的世卫组织。但中国台湾和世卫组织之间的技术合作渠道始终畅通。

Taiwan, being a part of China, does not have the right to join the WHO, because the WHO member must be a sovereign nation. Despite of this, technical communication and cooperation channel between the island and the WHO is always open.

世卫组织是由主权国家组成的联合国专门机构,只有联合国成员才有资格加入,台湾作为中国一部分无权加入。

The WHO is a specialized United Nations body composed of sovereign countries. Only UN members can join the WHO. Taiwan, being a part of China, is not eligible for membership.

根据中国政府同世卫组织达成的共识,中国台湾地区设立了世卫组织《国际卫生条例》联络点,拥有登录世卫组织事件信息网站的账号,可及时获取世卫组织发布的全球突发公共卫生事件信息。中国台湾地区与世卫组织的技术合作不存在障碍。从2019年年初到2020年3月,16批24人次台湾地区专家参加世卫组织举办的技术会议。

However, through consultations with the WHO, the central government of China has made proper arrangements for the application of the International Health Regulations in Taiwan. The island has the access to the WHO information system to timely get the information on public health emergencies released by the WHO. There are no technical barriers for Taiwan of China to work with the WHO. From early 2019 to March 2020, 24 experts from Taiwan, in 16 batches, have attended technical conferences held by the WHO, according to the Taiwan Affairs Office of China's State Council.

台湾同胞是我们的骨肉同胞,没有人比中国中央政府更关心台湾同胞的健康福祉。疫情发生后,中国国家卫生健康委及时主动向台湾地区通报疫情信息。截至4月13日,大陆方面向台湾方面通报疫情信息127次。1月中旬,大陆方面安排台湾专家到武汉实地考察,了解新冠病毒肺炎确诊病人诊治和疫情处置情况。

Nobody cares about the health of Taiwan compatriots more than the central government. Since the outbreak began, China's National Health Commission timely and actively notified the Taiwan region about the epidemic situation. By April 13, the Chinese mainland has informed relevant authorities in Taiwan 127 times. In mid-January, the mainland has arranged a field study in Wuhan for experts from Taiwan to let them learn about the situation.

事实上,中国台湾地区直到4月23日只有426例新冠肺炎确诊病例和6例死亡病例。这一较低的疫情数字说明,台湾地区民众的健康保障与台湾是否“正式加入”世卫组织没有关系。

As of April 23, Taiwan had reported 426 confirmed cases and six deaths of COVID-19, both relatively small numbers. It shows that whether Taiwan joins the WHO is irrelevant to safeguarding the health of the people on the island.

10

谣言:台湾早在2019年12月31日就向世卫组织发出关于新冠肺炎人传人的警告,但未获得重视。

Taiwan notified the WHO on Dec 31 about human-to-human transmission of the novel coronavirus, but the warning went unheeded.

真相:中国台湾地区并未向世卫组织发出警告,而是在武汉卫健委发出疫情通报后向世卫组织寻求更多信息。

Taiwan did not notify the WHO. It was seeking information from the WHO after Wuhan publicly reported cases of unknown pneumonia.

2019年12月31日,武汉市对外发布不明原因肺炎疫情情况通报后,台卫生部门向国家卫健委发函了解武汉卫健委公布的信息,国家卫健委通过两岸医药卫生合作协议联系窗口及时予以了书面回复。同日,台卫生部门向世卫组织发送所谓“预警”邮件(见下图)。

On Dec 31, after Wuhan announced that the city had detected cases of pneumonia with unknown cause, health authorities in Taiwan contacted the National Health Commission to ask information over the situation, and received a timely written response from the commission. On the same day, health authorities in Taiwan sent a request to the WHO for further information. (Details shown below)

该邮件未提及“人传人”,主要是向世卫组织了解情况。事实很清楚,大陆方面首先公布信息,台卫生部门再进行转述,不存在所谓台方首先向世卫组织报告的情况。

But mentioned nothing about human-to-human transmission. It is evident that the Chinese mainland first released the information and the Taiwan authority just relayed the information, instead of taking the lead to report the situation to the WHO.

世卫组织已多次澄清,中国台湾地区没有向其“示警”,只是提出希望了解更多信息。早在台方邮件之前,世卫组织就已收到多个其他方面提出的疫情信息通报请求。4月20日,世卫组织在新闻发布会上再次就此明确澄清。

The WHO has clarified on multiple occasions that Taiwan of China has not warned the organization, but simply asked for more information. Before Taiwan's email, the WHO had already received several other inquiry emails. On April 20, the WHO reiterated this point at a news conference.

中国台湾地区直到1月21日才确诊首例新冠肺炎疫情。在此之前,台方不掌握疫情的临床病例信息,更不可能所谓“得出人传人的结论”。台方口口声声说就“人传人”发出了“警告”,有何可信度?

Taiwan of China confirmed its first COVID-19 infection on Jan 21. Before that, the local authorities did not have any clinical evidence about the epidemic, thus it was impossible for them to conclude if there was human-to-human transmission. Under such circumstances, how could people trust the claim from the Taiwan side that it had warned the virus could be transmitted among humans?

11

谣言:中国对疫情暴发负有责任,必须向世界作出赔偿。

China is responsible for the outbreak and must compensate the world.

真相:病毒是人类的共同敌人,中国也是受害者。要求中国“赔偿”,没有任何法律依据。

The virus is a common enemy of the mankind and China is also a victim. There is no legal basis to demand "compensation" from China.

根据国际法,指控某国应为特定损害承担“国家责任”,前提是该国实施了“国际不法行为”,即该国的行为违背了其承担的国际义务。在本次抗疫过程中,中国及时采取了有效措施,履行了国际义务(参见第五个“谣言”有关内容)。

Under the international law, a state can only be accused of bearing "state responsibility" if it has committed an "internationally wrongful act", that is, what the state has done has violated its international obligations. In the fight against COVID-19, China has taken timely and effective measures to fulfill its international obligations (see "Rumor 5").

世卫组织于1月30日宣布新冠疫情构成“国际关注的突发公共卫生事件”,这距离中国首次向世卫组织发出疫情通报已有一个月,充分说明了中方在履行通报义务上毫无延迟。

The WHO announced the outbreak as the Public Health Emergency of International Concern on Jan 30, a month after China first notified the WHO of the epidemic. This sufficiently demonstrates that China has fulfilled its obligations of notifying the world without any delay.

现行国际法和《国际卫生条例》对国家为疫情大流行担责不提供依据。有国际法学家认为,如果要求中国为新冠肺炎疫情负责并作出赔偿,那么谁应该为H1N1流感、艾滋病、疯牛病等流行疾病负责并赔偿?

Current international laws and the International Health Regulations provide no basis for holding a state responsible for a pandemic. Some experts on international laws think that if requesting China to be responsible for COVID-19 and make compensations, then who shall be responsible for epidemics like H1N1 influenza, AIDS and Mad Cow Disease?

12

谣言:中国帮助其他国家抗疫只是为了扩大地缘政治影响力。

China is helping other countries fight COVID-19 only to expand its geopolitical influence.

真相:中国帮助其他国家是出于人道主义精神和感恩之心,此外中国在抗疫过程中积累了有益经验。

China helps other countries out of a humanitarian spirit and gratitude. It also stems from the firm belief in the community with a shared future for mankind. Moreover, China has accumulated some experience in fighting the virus and they may prove useful for others.

病毒不分国界,与肤色、语言无关。中国帮助其他国家抗疫既是出于国际人道主义精神,更是源于人类命运共同体的坚定信念。

中国帮助其他国家也是中华民族知恩图报传统的体现。在今年一月底二月初中国疫情最严峻的时刻,包括德国在内的世界上许多国家给予我们无私的帮助。中国人讲究“投桃报李”,中国国务委员兼外长王毅在与德国外长马斯以及欧盟外交和安全政策高级代表博雷利通话时均强调了这一点。

The Chinese people have the tradition of returning kindness with more kindness.During the height of the outbreak in China in late January and early February, many countries, including Germany, have lent an altruistic hand to help China. This has been stressed in the telephone conversations between Chinese State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi and his German counterpart Heiko Maas and European Union foreign policy chief Josep Borrell.

截至4月23日中国中央和地方政府累计向德国捐赠了170万只口罩和2.4万套防护服等医疗防护物资。大量中国企业、民间组织也向德国捐助了数百万只口罩、手套、护目镜等防护物资。

By April 23, China's central and local governments have donated 1.7 million masks and 24,000 sets of protective clothing to Germany. Many Chinese companies and civil organizations have also donated millions of masks, gloves, goggles and other protective supply to Germany.

中国政府对德国从中国商业采购医疗物资也提供了便利。目前通过中德之间的“空中桥梁”,每天有25吨医用物品从中国出口到德国。

The Chinese government has supported Germany's commercial procurement of medical supplies from China. At present, about 25 metric tons of medical supplies are exported from China to Germany every day by air.

中国在抗疫过程中积累了有益经验。经历过两个月的严格防控,中国疫情基本得到控制。世卫组织欧洲办事处认为,中国的经验对其他国家有借鉴意义,可以帮助他们更有效地出台应对措施和救治重患。

China has accumulated some useful experience in fighting COVID-19. After about two months of strict prevention and control, the outbreak in China is basically under control. The WHO's European Office believes that China's experience can serve as references for other countries to help them formulate effective responses and treatments for serious patients.

13

谣言:从中国进口的医用物品都是假冒伪劣产品。

Medical supplies imported from China are fake and inferior products.

真相:中国对出口的医用产品进行严格的质量检测。部分问题源于使用不当或中外标准不同。

China carries out strict quality tests on all medical products exported. Part of the problem stems from misuse or different quality standards.

据中国海关总署数据显示,2020年3月1日至4月4日,全国共验放出口主要疫情防控物资价值102亿元,包括口罩约38.6亿只,防护服3752万件,红外测温仪241万件,呼吸机1.6万台,新型冠状病毒检测试剂284万盒,护目镜841万副。报道出现质量问题的产品仅占极小部分。

According to China's General Administration of Customs, China exported 55 billion yuan ($7.77 billion) worth of epidemic prevention and control supplies from March 1 to April 25. This include 21.1 billion masks, 109 million protective suits, 9.29 million infrared thermometers, 110,000 patient monitors, 763 million pairs of surgical gloves and 32.94 million pairs of goggles. Only an extremely small fraction of the exports was reported with quality problems.

从4月2日起,中国政府出台政策,加强医疗物品出口质量管理。要求出口物品不仅要取得国家药品监管部门相关资质,同时也要符合进口国质量标准要求。

Since April 2, the Chinese government has issued a policy to strengthen quality control of exported medical products. It is required that the exported goods not only obtain qualification from Chinese medical product supervision authorities, but also must meet the quality standards of the importing country.

媒体炒作有关中国医疗物品质量缺陷,经核实主要是源于中国和欧洲的产品标准不同。另外,也有相关机构未严格遵守物品使用规程等因素。举两个流传甚广的有代表性的例子:

Some media hyped about defects in China's medical products, but after verification, it was found that the issue was due to different product standards between China and Europe. In addition, some institutions did not strictly comply with the use instructions. Here are two popular examples:

3月28日,荷兰媒体报道称,荷兰从中国购买的60余万只口罩存在质量问题,被卫生部全部召回。根据中方有关部门调查,中方企业发货前已告知荷方进口企业该批口罩为非医用口罩。出口报关手续也是以“非医用口罩”名义履行的。

On March 28, Dutch media reported that more than 600,000 masks bought from China had quality problems and were recalled by the country's health authority. Investigation by Chinese authorities found that the Chinese company had informed the Dutch import company that the masks were non-surgical masks before the shipment. Export declaration procedures were also performed in the name of non-surgical masks.

3月23日,捷克一名卫生官接受捷克广播电台采访表示,从中国采购的新冠肺炎病毒快速检测试剂盒错误率高达80%。捷克卫生部副部长、流行病学专家普利姆拉作出澄清称,该快速检测试剂盒实际错误率在20%-30%之间,部分医务人员未严格按照操作规程进行检测而引发此前误会。该检测仅为指向性检测,若要确诊还需进行核酸检测。

On March 23, a Czech health official told Czech media that the error rate of testing kits purchased from China was as high as 80 percent. Later, the Czech Deputy Health Minister Roman Prymula, an epidemiologist, made it clear that the kits had an actual error rate of between 20 and 30 percent, and that some medical staff members failed to follow the testing instructions, which led to the misunderstanding.

14

谣言:中国利用新冠病毒使西方经济瘫痪。

China used the novel coronavirus to cripple Western economies.

真相:中国经济与世界经济紧密相连,只有世界经济运行良好,中国经济才能蓬勃发展。

The Chinese economy is closely connected to the world economy. Only when the world economy runs well can the Chinese economy thrive.

中国经济受到了新冠肺炎疫情的严重影响。今年第一季度,中国GDP下跌6.8%,为1992年中国开始统计季度GDP数据以来最低数值。上一次中国实质上出现经济萎缩要追溯到1976年。

The Chinese economy has been severely affected by the COVID-19 epidemic. China's GDP contracted by 6.8 percent in the first quarter of this year, recording its worst plunge since 1992 – the first year when quarterly data became available. The last time China experienced economic contraction was in 1976.

自2001年中国加入世贸组织以来,中国经济同世界经济融合越来越紧密。2019年,中国进出口额高达31.54万亿人民币,其中出口17.23万亿人民币,约占经济总量的18%。中国与世界相互依存,世界经济迅速恢复并稳定增长才符合中国利益。

Since China joined the World Trade Organization in 2001, the Chinese economy has become increasingly integrated with the world economy. China's foreign trade volume stood at 31.54 trillion yuan in 2019, with exports reaching 17.23 trillion yuan, accounting for 18 percent of the total economy. China is interdependent on the rest of the world, and it is in China's interest for the world economy to recover quickly and grow steadily.

15

谣言:中国又重新开放了野生动物市场。

China reopened wildlife markets.

真相:中国不存在所谓“野生动物市场”,中国已立法全面禁止非法野生动物的猎捕、交易、运输和食用。

China doesn't have so-called wildlife markets. The country has banned the illegal hunting, trafficking and consumption of wildlife.

十三届全国人大常委会第十六次会议于2月24日通过了《全国人民代表大会常务委员会关于全面禁止非法野生动物交易、革除滥食野生动物陋习、切实保障人民群众生命健康安全的决定》。世界自然基金会对该决定表示赞赏。

China's top legislature, the National People's Congress Standing Committee, imposed a full ban on illegal wildlife trade and eating wild animals on Feb 24, 2020. The World Wide Fund for Nature praised the move.

武汉重新开放的是传统的农贸市场,出售新鲜蔬菜、水果、海鲜和肉类食品,并且严格遵守相关的卫生规定,与欧洲的鱼市、水果蔬菜市场没有本质区别。

The reopened farmers' markets in Wuhan are for traditional produce, and sell vegetables, fruit, seafood and meat products. These places, like European seafood, fruit or vegetable markets, strictly follow the health regulations in China.

16

谣言:中国人喝蝙蝠汤,所以才染上了新冠病毒。

Chinese people consume bat soup, causing the virus to jump from animals to humans.

真相:蝙蝠绝非中国人的食材,且尚未有确切证据表明新冠病毒源自蝙蝠。

Bats are absolutely not consumed by the Chinese, and there is so far no concrete evidence confirming the novel coronavirus comes from bats.

有关中国人都喝蝙蝠汤的说法,就像宣称德国人都吃母猪肚子一样荒唐。蝙蝠从来都不是中国人的食材。在疫情初期发现病毒聚集传播的武汉华南海鲜市场也不售卖蝙蝠。

Chinese don't eat bats, and it is not considered food in China. The Wuhan Huanan Seafood Market, where the outbreak was first documented, didn't sell bats.

网上所流传的一位中国女导游喝蝙蝠汤的视频,是在2016年录制并上传到社交媒体的。这个视频拍摄于太平洋小岛帕劳,这位导游和她的团队在那里录制一档旅游节目,并且尝试当地特色蝙蝠汤。

The video circulating online showing a Chinese female tour guide drinking bat soup was filmed in 2016. The video was recorded in Palau, a Pacific island, where the guide was trying out a local delicacy with her team for a travel program.

文章来源:中国日报双语新闻

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