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cuisine [kwɪ'ziːn]

n. 烹饪;佳肴

例句:

Yes, I believe you will know a lot about Chinese traditions this winter holiday, such as the custom, practices, cuisine, greeting and so on.

对的,我相信你一定可以在这个寒假了解到许多中国的传统习俗,如风俗习惯、菜肴、祝词等等。

 
今天讲解各类考试中常常用到的风俗类话题:中国特色的食物,同学们注意积累哟~


正文:

在国外吃中国菜,尤其是在更早以前,很容易碰到这么几种情况。

▽这菜在中国根本不存在

General Tso’s Chicken

左宗棠将军鸡

Most people who grow up in China’s mainland have never heard of this dish that was created by a Taiwan chef in the 50s, and in fact it has not the slightest bit of relevance to Zuo Zongtang (the General Tso for which the dish is named).

大多数在中国大陆长大的人从来没听说过这道由50年代一位中国台湾厨师做的菜,事实上它与左宗棠(这道菜名字的来源)一点关系都没有。

In the 1970s, the dish’s creator brought it to America where it was adored by Henry Kissinger and suddenly its popularity exploded. Chinese restaurants all over started making their own imitations of the dish. The dish’s flavor slowly morphed from the original salty and spicy profile into the sweet one that is presumed to be loved by so many Americans until it reached its current state as just a kind of sweet and sour chicken.

上世纪70年代,这道菜的创造者把它带到了美国,受到了亨利·基辛格的喜欢,于是突然,它的受欢迎程度激增。各地的中餐馆都开始仿制这道菜。味道慢慢地从原来的咸味和辣味转变成了甜味,有人认为很多美国人喜欢甜味,一直到它变成了现在的酸甜味鸡肉。

What I can assure you is that natives in Hunan, General Tso's hometown, have never heard of this so-called Hunan dish.

我敢跟你打包票左宗棠故乡湖南的人民从来没听过这道所谓的湖南菜。

模仿名字和菜式,但完全本地化了

▽Chop Suey

"杂碎"

When Chinese people talk about ‘chop suey’ they mean animal organs chopped up together and eaten, but westerners don’t eat organs and offal, so the American ‘chop suey’ refers to a mismatched mess of foodstuffs such as cabbage, pork strips, bean sprouts, celery, green pepper, onion all fried up together.

中国人所说的“杂碎”是指动物器官一起切碎食用,而西方人不吃器官和内脏,所以美国人所说的“杂碎”是指卷心菜、猪肉条、豆芽、芹菜、青椒、洋葱等不相配的一堆食物一起炸成的。

As one can well imagine, there is no standard for this dish, any restaurant can take whatever leftovers they have and turn it into chop suey. Liang Qichao, who during 1903 visited the US, tried the dish and left us with the following evaluation: “Those eaters of chop suey lack culinary skill. Chinese people would never touch such a dish.”

可以想象,这道菜是没有标准的,任何一家餐馆都可以把边角料做成杂碎。梁启超在1903年访问美国时,尝过这道菜,留给美国人的评价是:“那些吃这道菜的人缺乏烹饪技巧。中国人永远不会碰这样的菜。”

[This is] an "imagined authentic Chinese food" that in fact had never existed in China. For Americans it became the iconic Chinese dish in the mid-1900s, coming to be regarded as more and more authentic, even as it became less and less Chinese in its culinary format.

(这是)一种“想象出来的正宗中餐”,实际上在中国根本不存在。对美国人来说,这道菜在20世纪中期成为了标志性的中国菜,尽管它的烹饪形式越来越不中国,但它却越来越被认为是正宗。

▽制作相对粗糙,食材不地道

Spring Rolls

春卷

Spring rolls are probably one of the most popular appetizers found in foreign Chinese restaurants. On the surface, a crispy, golden shell filled mainly with bean sprouts and cabbage, but when it comes down to putting it in your mouth, you’ll find that they are usually fried into oblivion and if you can manage to make it to the center of this cudgel-like snack you’ll likely be left with a mouthful of oil. True spring rolls should have a very thin skin, abundant filling and just a little oil.

春卷可能是外国中餐馆最受欢迎的开胃菜之一。表面上看,春卷脆脆的、有金黄色的外壳,里面主要是豆芽和卷心菜,但当你把它放进嘴里时,你通常会发现,春卷炸过了头,要是你咬到这根短棒状的食物中间,你很可能会咬出一嘴油。正宗的春卷应该是皮很薄的,有丰富的馅料,而且只有一点点油。

还有很多在国外流行、在中国却少有人知的“中国菜”,China Hightlights网站总结了几样作为避雷:

Chicken or Beef Broccoli Stir Fry: Broccoli isn't native to China and not generally eaten.

鸡肉或牛肉炒西兰花:西兰花不是中国土生土长,而且并没有很多人吃。

Crab cheesy wontons or other types of cheese wontons: Anything containing cheese isn't authentic since the cheese was eaten in very few regions. Most Chinese are lactose intolerant. When the Chinese make wontons, they use different ingredients.

蟹肉芝士馄饨或者其他形式的芝士馄饨:所有有芝士的食物都不是正宗中国菜,因为中国只有极少数地方常吃芝士。大多数中国人都有乳糖不耐受。中国人做馄饨会用到不同的食材。

Chinese salads: If you find fresh salad on the menu in a Chinese restaurant abroad, it definitely isn't Chinese. This was never traditionally eaten, and is still rare except in foreign restaurants in China.

中国沙拉:如果你在海外中国餐馆的菜单上能看到新鲜沙拉,那肯定不是正宗中国菜。中国传统菜系根本就不吃沙拉,哪怕有也很少,只存在于中国的外国菜餐馆里。

Iced tea: A lot of Chinese restaurants outside the country serve iced tea. Freshly made black iced tea with ice and no sugar or sugar (Chinese would call it red tea) is basically unknown in the mainland except in a tourist restaurant.

冰茶:海外中餐馆很多都有冰茶。新鲜加冰的红茶加糖也好不加糖也罢,在中国大陆几乎找不到,除非是在游客饭店里。

Beef Chow Mien: Depending on the region, something like what you've eaten served on fried noodles might be available, but the flavor is probably much different.

牛肉炒面:要看地方,可能会有你吃过的食材盖在炒面上端上来,但味道(跟你吃的同样食材)很有可能大有差别。

……………    ……………   ……………    ……………  ……………   ……………        ……………

中国本土餐馆近年来逐渐在海外走俏。

比如,你很容易在B站的外国up主那里看到一大家子在中国著名火锅店的伦敦分店大快朵颐的画面。

据《中国日报》2018年5月的报道:

According to the report released by Meituan-Dianping, China's largest on-demand service platform, there are over 600,000 Chinese restaurants overseas. In 2017, at least 16 renowned Chinese catering brands, including Peking Duck brand DaDong and Qing Feng Steamed Dumpling Shop, tapped successfully into the foreign market.

据中国最大的外卖平台美团点评发布的报告显示,目前在海外有超过60万家中餐馆。2017年,北京烤鸭品牌大董、庆丰包子铺等至少16个中国知名餐饮品牌成功打入国外市场。

When DaDong opened its restaurant in New York at the end of last year, 2,500 reservations were booked within the first two hours it became available, which reflected the extreme popularity of traditional Chinese food overseas.

去年年底,大董在纽约开设餐厅时,在开始营业的前两个小时内就收到了2500份订座,这反映了中国传统食品在海外极其受欢迎。

The report also pointed out that hotpot is the most popular food in the foreign market and made up 34.2 percent of the total. Sichuan cuisine, as well as some Chinese snacks and fast food followed, came in second and third, respectively.

报告还指出,火锅是国外市场最受欢迎的品类,占总量的34.2%。川菜,以及一些中国小吃和快餐紧随其后,分别排在第二和第三位。

但还是有些菜,即使特色十足,却仍未广泛地走出国门。旅游网站The Travel就总结了一些:

1

Staple of Chinese Street Food: BBQ Meat

中国街头食物必点:烤肉

One of the meals you can find wandering the streets of China is Kǎo ròu (or barbecued meat). You can find this skewered meat in restaurants, as well as street vendor carts. They're known for being quite spicy and cooked over coals. Kǎo ròu can consist of almost any kind of meat, including braised pork, chicken, beef, and even other internal organs!

你可以在中国的街道上找到一种食物——烤肉。你可以在餐馆里找到这种肉串,还有街头小贩的手推车上也有。它们以辛辣闻名,而且是用木炭烤的。烤肉几乎可以包含任何种类的肉,包括炖猪肉、鸡肉、牛肉,甚至内脏。

2

Cold Vegetable Dish

凉菜

This dish, named liáng cài, literally translates to "cold dish". So, it makes sense that it would be a hodge-podge of ingredients. It's usually an assortment of cold vegetables, such as cucumbers, green beans, and cabbage. But there is no fixed recipe for it. For flavor, the vegetables are usually topped with a sauce, as well as tofu and peanuts. If you're in the mood for something healthy, this is a great choice!

这道菜名为凉菜,字面意思是“cold dish”。所以,可以想见凉菜会包含各种各样的食材,通常是各种冷蔬菜,如黄瓜、青豆和卷心菜等,但也没有固定的配方。为了调味,蔬菜通常在上面加上酱汁,豆腐和花生。如果你想吃健康的食物,这是一个很好的选择!

3

Tofu Pudding

豆花(豆腐脑)

Tofu, all by itself, is quite bland, tasteless, and requires spices to make it flavorful. However, tofu is a staple of Chinese cuisine and can even be found in their desserts! A popular dessert is tofu pudding, which consists of soft tofu covered in either sugar or a sweet ginger sauce. If you want your pudding to be a little more savory, you can top it off with soy sauce, chili, and peanuts.

豆腐本身淡而无味,需要调味料才能增味。不过,豆腐是中国菜的主角之一,甚至可以出现在甜点中!有一种很受欢迎的甜点是豆花,它是由软豆腐和糖或甜姜汁做成。如果你想让豆花更有味一点,你可以在上面加上酱油、辣椒和花生。

4

It's Not Quite Noodles: Mutton Stew

这不是面:羊肉泡馍

This dish, from the city of Xi'an, is a traditional stew called pào mó. Although it's usually made with mutton, you can also use pork or beef. The interesting quality about this stew is that, instead of noodles, there are pieces of unleavened bread floating in the broth. On the side, you'll usually find pickled garlic and chili sauce to compliment the stew. It's a great dish if you want something a little heartier to keep you warm.

这道菜来自西安,是一道传统的炖菜,叫泡馍。虽然通常是用羊肉做的,但也可以用猪肉或牛肉。这道炖菜的有趣之处在于,肉汤里没有面条,而是漂浮着一些未发酵的面疙瘩。在它旁边,你通常会发现有腌蒜和辣椒酱可以作为泡馍的配菜。如果你想吃点热乎乎的东西来保暖的话,这是一道很好的菜。

5

The Most Versatile of Dishes: Baozi

最万能的菜:包子

When it comes to choosing whether to have a meal or dessert...why, not both? Baozi are traditional Chinese steamed buns that are known for being delightfully fluffy. The buns are usually filled with vegetables and meat, usually barbecue pork. However, if you're looking for something a little sweeter, baozi can be filled with red bean paste or custard. If you're ever feeling indecisive about what to eat, this meal is versatile and satisfying.

在选择是吃顿饭还是吃点甜食的时候……为什么,不可以两者都吃呢?包子是中国传统食物,有点像圆面包,十分蓬松。包子里通常有蔬菜和肉,一般是烤肉。不过,如果你想吃甜一点的,包子里可以是红豆沙或者流心奶黄。如果你对吃什么感到难以抉择,包子就很百搭而且令人满足。

看饿了吧?

Note

offal [ˈɔːfl] n (食用的)动物内脏

sprout [spraʊt] n 苗;新芽;嫩枝

hodge-podge [ˈhɒdʒpɒdʒ] n 大杂烩

hearty [ˈhɑːti] adj 丰盛的;亲切的;强烈的

versatile ['vɜː(r)sətaɪl] adj.通用的

文章来源:中国日报双语新闻

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