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《柯林斯词典》宣布“封锁”(lockdown)一词成为2020年度词汇。同时入选年度十大词汇的还有冠状病毒、社交隔离、强制休假、梅根脱离王室、吃播等。

Lockdown, the noun that has come to define so many lives across the world in 2020, has been named word of the year by Collins Dictionary.

2020年改变了太多人生活的“封锁”被选为《柯林斯词典》的年度词汇。

Lockdown is defined by Collins as “the imposition of stringent restrictions on travel, social interaction, and access to public spaces”, and its usage has boomed over the last year. The 4.5bn-word Collins Corpus, which contains written material from websites, books and newspapers, as well as spoken material from radio, television and conversations, registered a 6,000% increase in its usage. In 2019, there were 4,000 recorded instances of lockdown being used. In 2020, this had soared to more than a quarter of a million.

《柯林斯词典》将“封锁”定义为“对旅行、社交互动和公共空间出入实施严格限制”,该词的使用量在过去一年间飙升。拥有45亿个词的柯林斯语料库的记录显示,“封锁”的使用量增加了6000%。柯林斯语料库的素材来自网站、书籍、报纸等书面材料以及广播、电视和谈话的口语材料。2019年,语料库记载了4000个使用“封锁”的例子。2020年,使用“封锁”一词的例子暴增至逾25万个。

"Language is a reflection of the world around us and 2020 has been dominated by the global pandemic,” says Collins language content consultant Helen Newstead. “We have chosen lockdown as our word of the year because it encapsulates the shared experience of billions of people who have had to restrict their daily lives in order to contain the virus. Lockdown has affected the way we work, study, shop, and socialise. With many countries entering a second lockdown, it is not a word of the year to celebrate but it is, perhaps, one that sums up the year for most of the world.”

《柯林斯词典》的语言内容顾问海伦·纽斯特德说:“语言反映了我们周边的世界,2020年是被全球疫情主宰的一年。我们选择‘封锁’作为今年的年度词汇,因为它概括了数十亿人被迫限制日常生活以防控病毒蔓延的共同经历。封锁影响了我们工作、学习、购物和社交的方式。如今许多国家都进入了第二轮封锁,这不是一个值得庆贺的年度词汇,但也许这个词能概括世界上大多数人的这一年。”

Other pandemic-related words such as coronavirus, social distancing, self-isolate and furlough were on the dictionary’s list of the top 10 words. So was the term key worker. According to Collins, key worker saw a 60-fold increase in usage over the last year, which reflects “the importance attributed this year to professions considered to be essential to society”.

冠状病毒、社交隔离、自我隔离和强制休假等其他疫情相关词汇也入选了《柯林斯词典》的年度十大词汇。同样入选的还有关键岗位工作人员。据《柯林斯词典》介绍,关键岗位工作人员的使用量在过去一年增加了60倍,反映出“今年对社会必不可少的职业的重视”。

The abbreviation BLM, for Black Lives Matter, also made the shortlist. Defined by Collins as “a movement that campaigns against racially motivated violence and oppression”, it registered a 581% increase in usage.

“黑人的命也是命”的缩写BLM也跻身年度十大词汇。 《柯林斯词典》将BLM定义为“反对种族暴力和压迫的运动”,数据显示,该词的使用量增加了581%。

Previous words of the year for Collins include climate strike in 2019, single-use in 2018, fake news in 2017, and Brexit in 2016. This year the top 10 included the word Megxit, defined as “the withdrawal of the Duke and Duchess of Sussex from royal duties, announced in January 2020”. Collins said the informal noun, modelled on Brexit, showed “just how firmly established that word now is in our lexicon”.

《柯林斯词典》先前的年度词汇包括2019年的“气候罢工”、2018年的“一次性使用”、2017年的“假新闻”和2016年的“英国脱欧”。今年的年度十大词汇还包括“梅根脱离王室”,该词被定义为“萨塞克斯公爵与公爵夫人2020年1月宣布退出王室职务”。《柯林斯词典》表示,这个仿照“英国脱欧”造出的非正式名词显示出“英国脱欧一词在英国词汇中的地位是多么稳固”。

来看看《柯林斯词典》年度十大词汇的权威定义:

coronavirus (noun): any one of a group of RNA-containing viruses that can cause infectious illnesses of the respiratory tract, including COVID-19. So called because of their crown-like appearance in electron micrographs.

冠状病毒(名词):任何导致呼吸道传染病的RNA病毒,包括新冠病毒在内。之所以被称为冠状是因为这种病毒在电子显微图中看起来形似王冠。

furlough (noun): a temporary laying-off of employees, usually because there is insufficient work to occupy them; (verb) to lay off (staff) temporarily. From Dutch verlof, from ver (for) and lof (leave); related to Swedish förlof.

强制休假(名词):员工被暂时解雇,通常是因为现有的工作量不需要这么多人手。也可作动词使用,意思是暂时辞退员工。该词源于荷兰语中的verlof,ver相当于英语中的for,lof是休假的意思,和瑞典语中的förlof也有关联。

key worker or keyworker (noun, Brit): an employee in any of a number of professions considered to be essential to the functioning of society, for example teachers, police officers, health workers, shop workers, etc.

关键岗位员工(英国名词):对社会运行至关重要的若干职业的员工,比如教师、警察、医护人员、商店店员等。

lockdown (noun): the imposition of stringent restrictions on travel, social interaction, and access to public spaces.

封锁(名词):对旅行、社交互动和公共空间出入实施严格限制。

Megxit (noun, informal): the withdrawal of the Duke and Duchess of Sussex from royal duties, announced in January 2020. From Meg(han), Duchess of Sussex and (e)xit; influenced by Brexit.

梅根退出王室(名词,非正式):萨塞克斯公爵与公爵夫人于2020年1月宣布退出王室职务。该词受“英国脱欧”一词的影响,由萨塞克斯公爵夫人梅根名字的头三个字母和退出英文的后三个字母组成。

mukbang (noun, Korean): a video or webcast in which the host eats a large quantity of food for the entertainment of viewers. From meogneun (eating) and bangsong (broadcast).

吃饭直播(名词,韩语):主播为了娱乐观众而在视频或网络直播中吃进大量食物。“吃播”一词由韩语meogneun(吃)和bangsong(播出)组合而成。

self-isolate (verb): to quarantine oneself if one has or suspects one has a contagious disease.

自我隔离(动词):在某人确诊或疑似有传染病时自我隔离。

social distancing (noun): the practice of maintaining a certain distance between oneself and other people in order to prevent infection with a disease. Also called: physical distancing.

社交隔离(名词):为防止感染疾病而在自己和他人之间保持一定距离的做法。也可以用physical distancing来表达。

TikToker (noun): a person who regularly shares or appears in videos on TikTok.

抖友(名词):经常分享或出现在抖音视频中的人。

文章来源:China Daily

Photo by Danylo Suprun on Unsplash

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