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辉瑞等制药公司在新冠疫苗上的进展让美国民众看到了希望,但是白宫健康顾问安东尼·福奇博士提醒人们,接种了疫苗仍然要坚持佩戴口罩和社交隔离等防护措施,因为疫苗可以防止得病,但可能无法防止病毒传播。

As several coronavirus vaccines inch closer toward FDA approval, the nation’s leading infectious disease expert has called on the public to double down on public health measures. Dr. Anthony Fauci, in a virtual discussion with The Hastings Center on Thursday, said the eventual vaccine is meant to protect the individual from getting sick from the coronavirus, but may not prevent that person from spreading the virus to others.

就在好几种新冠疫苗正在等待美国食品和药物管理局的审批之时,美国顶级传染病专家安东尼·福奇博士呼吁民众坚持公共卫生措施。福奇本周四(11月19日)在海斯汀中心参加虚拟讨论时表示,研发疫苗的最终目的是为了保护个人不因感染新冠病毒而生病,但可能无法防止接种者向他人传播病毒。

Fauci, when discussing Pfizer and Moderna’s results in clinical trials, explained that the vaccines are being evaluated to see if they prevent clinically apparent disease in the individual, and also to see if it prevents severe disease in a person who was inoculated. However, it is not yet clear what impact the vaccines may have on transmission.

福奇在讨论辉瑞和莫德纳制药公司的临床试验结果时解释道,正在对疫苗进行评估以确定其能否防止个人出现明显临床症状,并确定接种疫苗后是否可以避免发展成重症。但是,目前尚不清楚疫苗对病毒传播可能产生的影响。

"We have the same issue with influenza,” Fauci said, noting that the two coronavirus vaccines are far more effective than the seasonal flu vaccine. “You can get vaccinated with influenza and you won’t get sick, but it won’t necessarily prevent you from getting infected – although you won’t know you’re infected because you’ll either get mild or no symptoms.”

福奇称:“流感疫苗也存在这样的问题。”他指出,两种新冠疫苗都比季节性流感疫苗要有效得多。“你接种了流感疫苗后不会患上流感,但不一定会防止你感染流感病毒,不过由于你的症状轻微或没有症状,所以你并不知道自己被感染。”

The same concept applies to the eventual COVID-19 vaccine, he said.

他说,新冠疫苗的最终成品也是同理。

"The issue is that you’re not going to be completely protected against a degree of infection that you might not even notice that you might be able to spread to others,” he said. “Which is the reason why the message you may have heard me say over the last couple weeks in the media is that getting vaccinated with a highly efficacious vaccine does not mean that you’re going to abandon completely public health measures.”

他说:“问题在于,当你觉察不到是否在向他人传播病毒时,你是不能完全隔绝病毒感染的。这就是我为什么前几周向媒体表示,即使注射了非常有效的疫苗,也不意味着你可以完全放弃公共卫生措施。”

Much debate over mask-wearing and whether it’s beneficial to the wearer or is helpful in stopping the spread has divided the country, particularly as states reenter lockdown modes. Fauci said the public health measures, which include social distancing, avoiding large gatherings, and frequent handwashing should be routine until the level of virus in the community becomes minuscule so that the risk of infection is no longer a threat.

关于佩戴口罩是否对佩戴者有益或是否有助于遏制病毒传播在美国有两种截然不同的声音,尤其在各州又重新进入封锁模式后。福奇表示,包括社交隔离、避免大型聚会和频繁洗手在内的公共卫生措施应该成为常规,直到社区内的新冠病毒传播水平降至极低,人们不再有被感染的风险。

Communication, especially as the issues become politically polarized, has been especially difficult, Fauci said, adding that part of the challenge when implementing a public health policy is that it has to be an “all in this together” effort. With recent polls suggesting a decent amount of vaccine hesitancy across the nation, it doesn’t indicate that mass vaccination efforts will be a particularly easy effort.

福奇表示,随着这一问题政治两极化,沟通变得尤为困难。他补充道,实施公共卫生政策的一部分挑战来自需要让民众“团结一心”。最近的民意调查显示,美国各地有相当多的人对接种疫苗感到迟疑,这意味着大规模接种疫苗不是一件很容易的事。

"What we need to do, in a very clear, understandable way, is explain and I try to do this as often as I possibly can – that the speed [of vaccine development] itself is a reflection of scientific advances,” he said. “In other words, the technology of making a vaccine is not your grandfather’s technology – it’s the 21st century technology.”

他说:“我们需要做的,简单直白地讲,就是解释,而我尽可能地在反复解释,疫苗研发的速度本身反映了科学进步。换言之,现在制造疫苗的技术不是你祖辈时的技术,而是21世纪的技术。”

He added that the federal funding and billions of dollars invested at-risk for development and pre-manufacturing orders have helped speed up the timeline by months if not years.

他补充道,投入到研发和预售订单上的联邦经费和数十亿美元风险投资就算没有将研发时间缩短几年,至少也缩短了几个月。

"Speed has nothing to do with compromising safety or scientific integrity,” he said.

他说:“疫苗研发的速度虽快,但不会有损疫苗的安全性或科学完整性。”

As of Thursday, the US had tallied over 11.6 million cases of coronavirus, and more than 251,000 deaths.

截至本周四(11月19日),美国新冠肺炎累计确诊病例超1160万,累计死亡病例超25.1万。

文章来源:China Daily

Photo by Daniel Schludi on Unsplash

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